While at first it can be a frightening term, cryptography is our friend, and most people use it on a daily basis. Put simply, cryptography is the science of secure communication. This science involves taking information and scrambling it so that it can only be read by its intended recipient. Cryptography involves encryption and decryption. When you create a password for something, you are “encrypting” whatever information this password unlocks. When you type in the password to unlock something, you are “decrypting” this information. Without cryptography it would be very easy for our sensitive information to be modified and stolen.
As it relates to the blockchain, cryptography is what allows people to prove ownership of transactions on the blockchain. In the context of a blockchain, a specific type of encryption known as “asymmetric” encryption is used. The exact details of how this works is explained in the guide.